Today, Somalia faces many severe and complex challenges, including recurrent droughts and conflicts. In 2011, the food security crisis in the Horn of Africa raised a stark reminder that insufficient media attention has addressed the root causes of vulnerability in Somalia regarding the persistent food shortages. This drought resulted in alarming spikes in severe acute malnutrition and the widespread and rapid deterioration of food security. At the same time, decades of under investment left a country with highly vulnerable communities to the challenges of climate change, food insecurity, and internal conflict.

To abet recovery in these communities and to ensure they can withstand drought, it is essential to develop early warning systems, structured agriculture, and livestock sectors. Climate change can result in limited to no rainfall during the critical “gu” and “dayr” rainy seasons. In particular, both livestock and agricultural sectors depend on sufficient rainfall during these seasons, thus missing one or facing a shortage of rain in another can tip the balance toward drought. Hence, critical infrastructure such as water reservoirs, irrigation canals, and wells are essential to upholding sustainable livestock and agricultural communities.